Weekly News Briefing (Oct 7 – Oct 12, 2019)

 

Dear Globalists, 

We have always felt the need to not only start conversations around what’s happening in our vicinity, but also bring awareness to the lives that take place seemingly worlds away from us. Starting September 2019, we fulfill this need with Daily News Bites and Weekly News Briefings.

Follow us on Twitter and Instagram to stay current on a global level.

 

This week, our special #GlobaliSight focus is Climate Change Protest in Europe.

Activists protest for government inaction on climate change Monday in London, where hundreds of protestors were arrested. Alberto Pezzali | AP

Activists protest for government inaction on climate change Monday in London, where hundreds of protestors were arrested. Alberto Pezzali | AP

'Extreme Weather Will Tell This Truth': Climate Protests Erupt in Major Cities

Extinction Rebellion, an international advocacy group founded last year in a small English town, launched a round of protests in London, Amsterdam, Sydney, New York and other major cities. Hundreds of protestors were arrested on Monday in London as they railed against government inaction on climate change (NPR).

Climate Change Activist Climbs on BA Plane in London

As climate change protests escalate, activists sought to shut down London City Airport on Thursday. One of the activists climbed atop a British Airways plane and gave a speech to alert the world on the dangers of climate change (ABC).

Let’s review news on POLITICS & ECONOMICS from this past week: Russia’s destabilization plan, anti-government protest in Ecuador, anti-Kurdish campaign in Turkey, and Adobe’s departure from Venezuela.  


Top Secret Russian Unit Seeks to Destabilize Europe, Security Officials Say

After the destabilization in Moldova, Bulgaria and Montenegro, Western security officials found that the operations, which bore the fingerprints of Russia’s intelligence services, are part of a Europe destabilization campaign (NYT).

Protesters Move Into Ecuador's Capital; President Moves Out

Ecuador is at a dangerous impasse; thousands of indigenous anti-government protesters gathered in Quito, Ecuador's capital Tuesday. The clashes already forced the president to move his administration out of the city, which now lacks public transport. The violence was spurred by President Lenín Moreno's decision to end fuel price subsidies, resulting in sharp spikes in fuel prices (ABC).

Thousands of indigenous anti-government protesters gather in Ecuador's capital Quito Tuesday. The clashes already led to the president moving his administration out of the city. Fernando Vergara | AP

Thousands of indigenous anti-government protesters gather in Ecuador's capital Quito Tuesday. The clashes already led to the president moving his administration out of the city. Fernando Vergara | AP

Turkish Forces Escalate Campaign in Syria Against Kurdish-Led Militia

At least 23 Kurdish fighters were killed in the escalation of an anti-Kurdish militia campaign in Akcakale, Turkey in the past two days. The militia had fought against the Islamic State along with the U.S. All militia-owned counterterrorism operations, aka the Syrian Democratic Forces, had been suspended (NYT).

Adobe Is Cutting Off Users in Venezuela Due To US Sanctions

Due to the U.S.-Venezuela trade dispute, Adobe is shutting down service for users in Venezuela and informing Venezuelan customers that their accounts would be deactivated. Users can still download contents until Oct. 28 (Verge).

Last but not least, let’s shift to SOCIETY news: Iranian women are allowed to watch soccer matches, student violence Bangladesh, and China prohibit ‘South Park’ episode.

Raha Purbakhsh, a sports reporter in Iran, shows her ticket to a World Cup qualifier in front of Azadi Stadium in Tehran Tuesday. Atta Kenare | Getty Images

Raha Purbakhsh, a sports reporter in Iran, shows her ticket to a World Cup qualifier in front of Azadi Stadium in Tehran Tuesday. Atta Kenare | Getty Images

Thousands Of Women Will At Last Be Allowed To Attend A Soccer Match in Iran

Iranian women have been kept away from watching soccer matches at stadiums for around 40 years, but the Iranian authorities now allow women to watch games under pressure from FIFA. On Thursday at Tehran's Azadi Stadium, women were allowed to buy tickets and watch the World Cup qualifier game between Iran and Cambodia, though they sat in a different section (NPR).

Abrar Fahad Killing: Bangladesh Student Was Beaten For Four Hours

A Bangladeshi undergrad at Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology was killed in his dormitory Sunday after criticising the government online. The autopsy confirmed that he was beaten for several hours before he died. Thirteen students were detained, including at least five activists (BBC).

'South Park' Scrubbed From Chinese Internet After Critical Episode

Chinese government censors have reacted to the most recent episode of South Park, "Band in China," by deleting almost every clip, episode and online discussion of the show from Chinese online platforms, although the episode tends to avoid offending the censors (THR).


News and Copy Editor Kaizhao (Zero) Lin, a junior studying international relations and newspaper journalism at Syracuse University, wants to discover and retell the stories that he feels empathetic and grateful to.

 

Weekly News Briefing (Sept 30 – Oct 5, 2019)

 

Dear Globalists, 

We have always felt the need to not only start conversations around what’s happening in our vicinity, but also bring awareness to the lives that take place seemingly worlds away from us. Starting September 2019, we fulfill this need with Daily News Bites and Weekly News Briefings.

Follow us on Twitter and Instagram to stay current on a global level.

 

This week, our special #GlobaliSight focus is WORLDWIDE PROTESTS: Hong Kong and Iraq issues.

The police in Hong Kong shot a pro-democracy protester Tuesday for the first time. Photo courtesy: Kin Cheung | AP

The police in Hong Kong shot a pro-democracy protester Tuesday for the first time. Photo courtesy: Kin Cheung | AP

Hongkong: Protester Is Shot By Police As Clashes Over Democracy Take A Dark Turn

The police in Hong Kong shot a pro-democracy protester Tuesday for the first time, escalating tension between the two sides after months of violence. It was confirmed by the hospital authority that a male protester has been hospitalized (NPR).

Iraq protests: Shots fired as demonstrators defy Baghdad curfew

At least 19 protestors have been killed since Tuesday in Baghdad and other Iraqi cities due to conflicts with the security force. The root cause of the protest is the high unemployment, poor services and corruption within the country. The protests appeared to lack of organized leadership and are the largest ones since PM Adel Abdul Mahdi entered the office (BBC).

Let’s review some news on POLITICS that happened this past week: Brexit, attack in Paris police HQ and climate change support for Pacific islands.

China held its 70th anniversary parade on Oct. 1st, its National Day, at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. Plenty of unseen weaponaries were first exposed to its people. Photo courtesy: Kevin Frayer | Getty Images

China held its 70th anniversary parade on Oct. 1st, its National Day, at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. Plenty of unseen weaponaries were first exposed to its people. Photo courtesy: Kevin Frayer | Getty Images


China: In Pictures: China’s National Day Parade Features Pomp and Artillery

The country’s largest ever military parade took place in Beijing on Tuesday, celebrating its 70th anniversary after the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. The parade began in Tiananmen Square and included “100,000 performers, 15,000 goose-stepping soldiers and an array of heavy-duty weaponry” (NYT).

Brexit: New UK plan for Northern Ireland to stay in single market

The new plan for Brexit allows Northern Ireland to stay in the European single market for goods but leads to new customs checks. Northern Ireland would need to approve it and vote every four years on the plan if it wants to continue the plan. (BBC).

Civilian employee killed 4 in knife attack at Paris police HQ

A technology administrator, who launched the attack from his office to other parts of the police headquarter with a knife without warning signs, killed four officers on Thursday. He was shot dead at the scene. Three of the victims were police officers, the other one an administrator (ABC).

'We Need Support': Pacific Islands Seek Help And Unity To Fight Climate Change

President Hilda Heine of the Marshall Islands, a country in the central Pacific Ocean, asked for more resources and support in the United Nations session and its environmental conferences earlier this week. (NPR).

Last but not least, let’s shift to SOCIETY news: Australian gun control, Venezuela’s lomo taxistas and the discovery of a 2,200-year-old Egyptian temple.

Shooting in Sydney Raises Questions About Gun Control

A gunman was shot dead by Sydney police on Wednesday after firing at a home and two police stations for about an hour. The case raises concerns over gun control in Australia. Gun ownership has increased over the past two decades, with each owner possessing an average of 3.9 guns compared with 2.1 in 1997 (NYT).

Venezuelan border town swells with internal migrants

Dozens of young men in Venezuela, known as “lomo taxistas” meaning taxis of the lower back, carry suitcases of merchandise that they bought from Colombia as they walk across the crowded bus terminal. They spend much of the day wandering around with their heavy backpacks. “I didn’t expect to stay here, but I had to because I didn’t have more money to continue my journey” (ABC).

2,200-year-old Egyptian temple discovered

On Sept. 29, Egypt's Ministry of Antiquities claimed on Facebook that sanitation workers discovered unexpected remains of a 2,200-year-old temple, which may belong to Pharaoh Ptolemy IV, the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 B.C. The temple is in the village of Kom Shakau, in the Tama township of northern Sohag (ABC).

Egypt claimed that sanitation workers discovered an unexpected remains of a 2,200-year-old temple, which may belong to Pharaoh Ptolemy IV, the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 B.C. Photo courtesy: Egypt Ministry of Antiquities

Egypt claimed that sanitation workers discovered an unexpected remains of a 2,200-year-old temple, which may belong to Pharaoh Ptolemy IV, the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 B.C. Photo courtesy: Egypt Ministry of Antiquities


News and Copy Editor Kaizhao (Zero) Lin, a junior studying international relations and newspaper journalism at Syracuse University, wants to discover and retell the stories that he feels empathetic and grateful to.

 

Weekly News Briefing (Sept 22 - 28, 2019)

 

Dear Globalists, 

We have always felt the need to not only start conversations around what’s happening in our vicinity, but also bring awareness to the lives that take place seemingly worlds away from us. Starting September 2019, we fulfill this need with Daily News Bites and Weekly News Briefings.

Follow us on Twitter and Instagram to stay current on a global level.

 

This week our special #GlobaliSight Focus is Africa’s EBOLA OUTBREAK that caused disputes among WHO and African countries.

A girl is receiving the Ebola vaccine in DR Congo. Photo courtesy: Jerome Delay | AP

A girl is receiving the Ebola vaccine in DR Congo. Photo courtesy: Jerome Delay | AP

We have mentioned the new Ebola vaccine in DR Congo last week. Let’s quickly review it:

Recap: DR Congo to introduce second Ebola vaccine

In the second largest outbreak on record, more than 2,100 people died from Ebola in DR Congo, and the government is planning to implement a second vaccine by Johnson & Johnson to control the spread of the virus (BBC).

Doctors Without Borders Calls For More Transparency is needed in Distribution Of Ebola Vaccine

NPR said that Doctors Without Borders is accusing the WHO for limiting the use of the vaccine. Dr. Isabelle Defourny, the group's director of operations, said that only 1,000 people can receive the vaccine every day while they can inject at least 2,000, calling for more vaccines to the team (NPR).

WHO accuses Tanzania of withholding information about suspected Ebola cases

The Ebola outbreak has already caused more than 2,000 deaths in eastern Congo. A 34-year-old Tanzanian doctor died on Sept. 8 that proved it a contagion case; numerous contacts also became ill. WHO accused Tanzania of hiding suspected Ebola cases (WP).

Let’s review some news on POLITICS that happened this week: Paris ISIS allies are on trial, Mexico’s president skips important meetings and Trump’s new cap on refugee admission.

Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador has not been to any international conference so far. Critics said it is a damage to their national image. Photo Courtesy: Pedro Martin Gonzalez Castillo | Getty Images

Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador has not been to any international conference so far. Critics said it is a damage to their national image. Photo Courtesy: Pedro Martin Gonzalez Castillo | Getty Images

Paris women on trial for attempted attack near Notre Dame

Two female French allies to the ISIS were on trial Monday for trying to blow up a car near Notre Dame Cathedral in 2016. This case sheds light on the recruitment of women of the ISIS. Two women would face lifelong imprisonment if convicted, and the sentences for six others are still to be determined (ABC).

Mexico's President Skips U.N. General Assembly And All Other Foreign Travel

Mexico’s President Andrés Manuel López Obrador skipped the annual UN Climate Action Summit that took place on Monday. The NPR further reports that he has never left Mexico after he entered the office and was absent for conferences including G-20. Some critics point out that Obrador is uncomfortable in international settings because he does not have enough international policy background (NPR).

Trump Administration Drastically Cuts Number Of Refugees Allowed To Enter The U.S.

Trump has cut the number of refugees to the U.S. to 18,000 for 2020, which is almost a 50% drop from 30,000, making it the lowest number of refugees allowed into the country since 1980. The new limitation is a huge contrast to Obama’s 110,000 refugees cap. Officials are now requiring states and cities to provide written consent before accepting refugees (NPR).

Finally, let’s shift to SOCIETY issues: Fundraising in UN Climate Summit, Kenya’s school collapse caused deaths and French #MeToo creator was fined.

U.N. Summit: Climate-Related Disasters Getting Worse, Funds To Help Falling Short

The UN Climate Action Summit Monday reflects that the world still does not have enough money to expand disaster response strategies in countries like Mozambique. A representative was in the meeting to present the issue. In October, delegates will meet in Paris to discuss increasing their contributions to fund (NPR).

At least 7 students dead after school collapses in Kenya’s capital

A private school in Kenya collapsed Monday; at least seven students died and dozens injured, according to the city official. The tragedy again questions the Kenya’s enforcement on school and apartment construction (WP).

Sandra Muller, France's #MeToo creator, fined for defamation

Sandra Muller, the woman who started #balancetonporc tag as the French #MeToo campaign, lost a defamation case where she accused ex-TV boss Éric Brion of harassment. Mr. Brion rejected all her allegation and now she has to pay $22,000 in damages and fees (BBC).

At least seven students died due to the collapse of a Kenya elementary school, prompting conversations about the local building standards. Photo Courtesy: Khalil Senosi | AP

At least seven students died due to the collapse of a Kenya elementary school, prompting conversations about the local building standards. Photo Courtesy: Khalil Senosi | AP


News and Copy Editor Kaizhao (Zero) Lin, a junior studying international relations and newspaper journalism at Syracuse University, wants to discover and retell the stories that he feels empathetic and grateful to.

 

Weekly News Briefing (Sept 15-21, 2019)

 

Dear Globalists, 

We have always felt the need to not only start conversations around what’s happening in our vicinity, but also bring awareness to the lives that take place seemingly worlds away from us. Starting September 2019, we fulfill this need with Daily News Bites and Weekly News Briefings.

Follow us on Twitter and Instagram to stay current on a global level.

 

This week we have a special #GlobaliSight Focus: Southeast Asia’s ENVIRONMENTAL issues caused by record-breaking bushfires.

Indonesia haze: Breathing in south east Asia's hazardous smoke 

BBC made this short documentary about how Indonesian forest fires create a smoky haze every year that can cover the region. The fires consequently worsen people’s long-term health problems, especially respiratory-related illnesses among kids (BBC).

Forest fires take place almost every year in Southeast Asia, casting a smoky haze over some countries in the region. Photo courtesy: Bjorn Vaughn | BBC News

Forest fires take place almost every year in Southeast Asia, casting a smoky haze over some countries in the region. Photo courtesy: Bjorn Vaughn | BBC News

Digging Into the Cause — Indonesia Haze: Why do Forests Keep Burning?

Almost every year, a smoky haze blankets the South East Asia signaling the return of forest fires. Grey skies and a lingering acrid smell are familiar to the countries in the region, which saw some of the worst haze levels in years happen in 2019: 328,724 hectares of land burnt this year from January to August alone (BBC).

Further Influences — Singapore Grand Prix: How will haze affect the drivers and fans?

The haze in Indonesia and Malaysia led to poor air quality in their neighboring country of Singapore, where Formula 1 Grand Prix took place this past weekend. If the haze was persisting and visibility dropping, drivers would either race in harsher conditions or the race would be called off (BBC).

Let’s review some news on POLITICS that happened this week: Hong Kong protests continue, Spain’s fourth election in four years and U.S.-China potential dispute on El Salvador.

The masked protesters in Hong Kong hurled gasoline bombs at governmental buildings. Photo courtesy: Lam Yik Fei | The New York Times

The masked protesters in Hong Kong hurled gasoline bombs at governmental buildings. Photo courtesy: Lam Yik Fei | The New York Times

HK Protesters Hurl Gasoline Bombs at Government Offices

Black-clad protesters in Hong Kong hurled gasoline bombs at government offices in central HK last Sunday. Tens of thousands of pro-democracy protesters were marching when they descended into clouds of tear gas deployed by the police. The police also used water cannons after protesters vandalized a subway station and hurled bricks and gasoline bombs at the city’s legislature building (NYT).

Spain to Hold Fourth Election in Four Years

Spain’s Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez announced Tuesday of “having failed to secure enough support in parliament to form a government,” leading to Spain’s fourth election in four years. The new election will be held on Nov. 10, while the previous one took place in April. There is no consensus on who will be the candidates so far (BBC).

To Influence El Salvador, China Dangled Money. The U.S. Made Threats.

China’s ambition to create a large commercial port in El Salvador’s Isla Perico might lead to a dispute between Beijing and Washington. American officials in El Salvador perceive China as an untrustworthy partner, while China claims a possible win-win result (NYT).

Finally, let’s shift to SOCIETY topics: sexual assault at British universities, Syrian child refugees saved a German village’s student rate and DR Congo’s new Ebola vaccines.

British Universities 'Failing' Victims of Sexual Misconduct

A BBC investigation found that more than 700 allegations of sexual misconduct were reported across British universities in the past academic year. Students accused their universities of being afraid of reputational damage and thus not offering support. One student was told by her college to spend the night in the library after she told them she could not return to her house due to her fear of another attack (BBC).

Syrian Children Saved a German Village. And a Village Saved Itself.

Golzow, Germany had a record-low number of school-age children before hundreds of thousands of migrants arrived in the country in the summer of 2015. A village, which lost a third of its people after the fall of the Berlin Wall, is given a new life as immigrant children repopulate local schools. “The Syrians saved our school,” Mayor Frank Schütz said (NYT).

A Hard Lesson for Migrants Who Give Up: There May Be No Welcome Mat Back Home

The fishing village in Senegal has long sent its men abroad for work, but the men kept coming back empty-handed. Fisherman El Hadji Macoura Diop, 37, failed to reach Europe by boat and was afraid of going back home and disappointing his family (NYT).

Health workers among others who had contact with Ebola patients received the new vaccine. Photo courtesy: Getty Image

Health workers among others who had contact with Ebola patients received the new vaccine. Photo courtesy: Getty Image

DR Congo to Introduce Second Ebola Vaccine

In the second largest outbreak on record, more than 2,100 people died from Ebola in DR Congo, and the government is planning to implement a second vaccine by Johnson & Johnson to control the spread of the virus (BBC).

'Cocktail of pollutants' Found in Dolphins in English Channel

A study led by Dr. Krishna Das of the University of Liege found some of the highest recorded levels of toxic chemicals in bottlenose dolphins off the French coast, home to one of the last remaining large European populations of bottlenose dolphins. Further research will be done to tackle the "invisible" problem of lingering pollutants in the oceans (BBC).


News and Copy Editor Kaizhao (Zero) Lin, a junior studying international relations and newspaper journalism at Syracuse University, wants to discover and retell the stories that he feels empathetic and grateful to.

 

Weekly News Briefing (Sept 8-14, 2019)

 

Dear Globalists, 

We have always felt the need to not only start conversations around what’s happening in our vicinity, but also bring awareness to the lives that take place seemingly worlds away from us. Starting September 2019, we fulfill this need with Daily News Bites and Weekly News Briefings.

Follow us on Twitter and Instagram to stay current on a global level.

 

The main issues in this week’s POLITICS are: the postponed Taliban talk, Brexit, international nuclear dispute and the COP conference in the U.K.

Taliban Talks Hit a Wall Over Deeper Disagreements, Officials Say

President Trump has called off a negotiation with the Taliban, possibly leading to more negotiations on the peace deal for the resistance. The Taliban refused to negotiate directly with the Afghan government but waits for an agreement with the United States, said a senior Taliban leader. Trump has also made a promise in regards to the issue in his past election: End the Afghan war. (NYT)

Brexit extension: PM to 'test law to limit' to avoid delay

Before the former PM Theresa May resigned in June, Britain postponed its exit from the EU to Oct 31. The British government works to find a deal before Oct. 19; otherwise, it may exit the EU without a deal. “We've got to prevent Boris Johnson from forcing through a no-deal because of the damage it could do for our country,” said John McDonnell, the shadow chancellor. (BBC)

Iran Breaks With More Limits in Nuclear Deal as It Pushes for European Aid

Iran said it is going to violate another set of limits on its nuclear research and production in the 2015 agreement with Trump. Iran might put more pressure on European nations to find a way of escaping America’s sanctions, while the U.S. is also not confident whether Europe will take a stance on the sanctions on Iran. (NYT)

People at the Seoul Railway Station Tuesday saw a file image of a North Korean missile launch on a TV program. Photo courtesy: Ahn Young-Joon/Associated Press

People at the Seoul Railway Station Tuesday saw a file image of a North Korean missile launch on a TV program. Photo courtesy: Ahn Young-Joon/Associated Press

North Korea Launches 2 More Projectiles, Its 8th Weapons Test Since July

North Korea had its new nuclear test on Tuesday after proposing a new denuclearization talk with the U.S. this month. Two early US-DPRK talks left no solutions on the issue so far. South Korea was still unclear about what kind of weapons were tested. (NYT)

COP26: Glasgow to host UN climate change summit in 2020

The UK will host the main summit of the 26th Conference of the Parties while partnering with Italy that takes charge of preparatory and youth events. Aimed at eliciting a global response to urgent climate issues, the UN summit is expecting up to 30,000 delegates atGlasgow's Scottish Events Campus. (BBC)

Let’s shift to SOCIETY issues: Australia bushfire, Dorian after care and Japanese paternity leave issue.

Australia Bushfires Arrive Early, Destroying Historic Lodge in ‘Omen’ of Future

A bushfire destroyed Binna Burra Lodge, one of Australia’s oldest nature resorts. Officials had warned that climate change would cause its worst fire season on record. Typically wetter and cooler rainforests are under concerns that they are experiencing heat and low rainfall, according to Joëlle Gergis, a climate scientist and writer at the Australian National University.  (NYT)

After Dorian, Cruise Lines Offer Meals, Supplies and Rides to Safety

In order to help with relief, companies like Disney, which have a difficult relationship with the Bahamas, supported it with the most robust corporate in response to the devastating Hurricane Dorian, which is recorded as a Category 5 storm and “has so far killed at least 50 people and wrecked thousands of homes.”  (NYT)

Two Men in Japan Dared to Take Paternity Leave. It Cost Them Dearly, They Say.

Japan is one of the countries with the best paternity leave policy, while only 3% of men in 2016 really exercised this right. Two men who recently had paternity leaves are suing their employers because the companies demoted and paid them less after they returned. “With a declining birthrate and the economic necessity that more women work, Japan desperately needs more fathers to help out at home.”  (NYT)

A Japanese man, who has taken paternity leave and been punished, entered a Tokyo court Thursday. Photo courtesy: Behrouz Mehri/Agence and France-Presse/Getty Images

A Japanese man, who has taken paternity leave and been punished, entered a Tokyo court Thursday. Photo courtesy: Behrouz Mehri/Agence and France-Presse/Getty Images

Finally, let’s go over some ARTS & TECHNOLOGY news: Huawei’s 5G sale and Marie Claire’s final issue in the UK.

Huawei chief offers to share 5G know-how for a fee

In response to U.S. concerns on being spied, Ren Zhengfeng, Huawei's chief executive, has proposed its sale of 5G know-how to a Western firm. Steve Tsang, professor at Soas University of London, commented that this shows Huawei’s willingness to move forward to try and win the West's trust.  (BBC)

An edition of Marie Claire UK from February 2018. About 35% of the magazine’s circulation is given away. Photo Courtesy: Marie Claire

An edition of Marie Claire UK from February 2018. About 35% of the magazine’s circulation is given away. Photo Courtesy: Marie Claire

Marie Claire will stop printing in UK (producing UK print magazine after November)

A pity for the print fashion magazine industry! TI Media says it is making the change to confront declining print sales and that Marie Claire will stop its print edition starting this November but will still publish online because the website has two million monthly users. "A strategy focusing on Marie Claire UK's digital business will give the brand the best opportunity to secure a profitable and sustainable future." (BBC)


News and Copy Editor Kaizhao (Zero) Lin, a junior studying international relations and newspaper journalism at Syracuse University, wants to discover and retell the stories that he feels empathetic and grateful to.